lunedì 25 luglio 2011

Comunicato stampa ufficiale: cosa è successo all'ONU il 14 luglio 2011

Il comunicato stampa ufficiale dell'ONU, riportato di seguito, riassume i contenuti del dialogo costruttivo tra il Governo italiano ed il Comitato per l'attuazione della CEDAW, relativo all'implementazione della CEDAW in Italia nel periodo 2005-2009, avvenuto a New York in data 14 luglio 2011.
Il dialogo costruttivo si basa sulla documentazione pervenuta al Comitato ed in particolare: sul Rapporto Periodico e sulle Risposte pervenute dal Governo; sui Rapporti Ombra pervenuti dalla società civile e sulla Lista delle Questioni Critiche pervenuta nel corso della sessione preliminare; sulle informative pervenute dagli altri organi ONU.
Nel corso del dialogo costruttivo, i membri del Comitato pongono ai delegati del Governo domande e/o commenti sull'attuazione della Convenzione, ed il Governo risponde.

Si noti che nelle sessioni ONU è d'obbligo parlare una delle sei lingue ufficiali.
Il nostro Governo invece è stato l'unico, tra quelli esaminati, ad esprimersi in una lingua non ufficiale, ovvero in italiano (!).
Nonostante la presenza di personale proveniente da diversi Ministeri e Istituzioni, i delegati non sono stati in grado di rispondere esaustivamente nei tempi richiesti a tutte le domande poste dal Comitato.

Committee on Elimination of  Discrimination against Women

982nd & 983rd Meetings (AM & PM)


Strongly criticized today for harbouring negative stereotypes of women and discriminatory attitudes toward immigrants and minorities, Italian officials countered by describing their country’s recent enactment of robust and progressive programmes on both fronts, as the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women took up Italy’s sixth periodic report.

Women in Italy were more integrated into society than ever before, said Diego Brasioli, head of the State delegation, as he presented the report. “They have a great range of life choices,” he added, citing concrete programmes — including child-care services, economic support for those working from home and tax breaks — now in place to support women in the labour market. An important new bill aimed to ensure that women had equal access to elected and public positions, he told the 23-member expert panel. Numerous programmes were also in place to support vulnerable women at all levels of Italian society.

Among specific progress achieved since its last periodic review, Italy had adopted its first National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security, by which it monitored relevant sectors, he said. The country had also adopted the National Plan on Violence against Women and Stalking, in addition to establishing a Government unit and working group on stalking and sexual violence. Despite the current global financial crisis, Italy had also managed to preserve its extensive annual budget for the protection of human-trafficking victims, he said, adding that the elaboration of a new national plan on trafficking was slated for completion by November 2011. But despite those success stories, complete equality had yet to be achieved, he said. Women, who now made up nearly half of the national workforce, still earned about 5 per cent less than men, and many of them remained overstretched by the need to reconcile work and family-care obligations.

Following Mr. Brasioli’s presentation, Committee experts commended the 21-member delegation — which was joined via video conference by colleagues in Rome — on their country’s progress in protecting some aspects of women’s rights, but all agreed that more remained to be done. Italy ranked seventy-fourth in a well-known world gender report, one expert said, while another noted that the country was noteworthy for its gender imbalance in terms of elected office. Yet a third Committee member stressed that Italy had no coherent policy for reconciling the responsibilities of parenthood and employment, describing women’s widespread maternity-related resignation as a grave violation of the Convention.

Several experts also pointed to persistent negative stereotyping of women in advertising and media, with one recalling that the Committee, in reviewing Italy’s previous reports, had called for measures — including legislative steps — to combat stereotypical portrayals. She asked whether that recommendation had been implemented, while several of her colleagues asked whether remedial programmes functioned in a comprehensive way to cover sectors as diverse as education and mass media.

In response, one delegate described recent initiatives implemented with a view to promoting positive images of women. The Government was implementing one such programme in collaboration with the Institute of Self-Discipline, an umbrella organization working with private marketing and communications companies across Italy, to withdraw sexist or distorted images of women from advertising. Another initiative required the State television station to show “modern” images of women, while a third consisted of a voluntary self-regulation programme for commercial television.

Throughout the day, many experts raised concerns about discrimination against immigrant women, who accounted for nearly half of the 50,000 immigrants who had arrived in Italy since January 2011 alone. Meanwhile, a 2009 law had made illegal immigration a criminal offence, she said, urging Italy to review that legislation to ensure that trafficking victims did not fall into the category of irregular or illegal migrants.

With regard to pervasive negative attitudes towards Italy’s Roma population, which continued unabated in Italy, according to the experts, one Committee member pointed out that some 20,000 Roma children under the age of 12 were not fulfilling their educational obligations. Such troubling conditions resulted from a deep distrust of a Government perceived by Roma communities as “hostile”, she said. Yet another expert referred to a “state of emergency” declared in 2008 to deal with nomadic settlements, which remained in place today. The Committee member urged the Government to repeal the state of emergency, saying that would signal its willingness to engage positively with the Roma population.

A delegate responded by emphasizing the critical importance of forging close links between efforts to sensitize the population to the plight of marginalized communities and social-inclusion programmes. Many community programmes paid special attention to the Roma, particularly in the areas of education and housing, he said, citing a 2008 project focused on creating social-inclusion tools for public administrators. Italy had been the first country to carry out a Council of Europe campaign to combat prejudice, he said, adding that other programmes were being developed, including a strategy for the inclusion of Roma women in the labour market.

The Committee will reconvene at 10 a.m. on Friday, 15 July, to take up the combined sixth and seventh reports of Ethiopia.


The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women met this morning to consider the sixth periodic report of Italy (document CEDAW/C/ITA/Q/6/Add.1).

Leading the Italian delegation was Diego Brasioli, President of the Inter-ministerial Committee for Human Rights in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Other members were: Angela Pria, Head, Department of Civil Liberties and Immigration; Michele Palma, Director General for International Affairs, Department for Equal Opportunities; Assunta Morresi, Expert on Bioethics and Health, Cabinet of both the Minister for Health and the Minister for Labour; Monica Cecconi, Medical Executive, Cabinet of the Under-Secretary of State on Health; Stefania Ricci, Executive Director, VI Office devoted to the European Union and International Relations, Ministry of Health; and Irene Zancanaro, Directorate General for International Affairs, Department for Equal Opportunities.

The delegation also included Annamaria Matarazzo, Officer, International and European Union Relations, Department of Family-Related Services; Sebastiano Ardita, Director, General Directorate for Detainees and Penitentiary Treatment, Department of the Penitentiary Administration, Ministry of Justice; Martha Matscher, Head of the Office on Asylum, Department of Civil Liberties and Immigration, Ministry of the Interior; Chiara Giacomantonio, Vice-Senior Police Officer, Central Operational Service, Department of Public Security, Ministry of the Interior; Enzo Fanelli, Head, General Office of Legal Affairs, General State Defence, Ministry of Defence; and Luisa Riccardi, Executive, Legislative Office, Ministry of Defence.

Also in the delegation were Gloria Cinque, Officer, General Office of Legal Affairs, General State Defence, Ministry of Defence; Maria Baroni, Officer, Diplomatic Adviser Office, Ministry of Labour; Cinzia Alitto, Coordinator, Office of the National Equality Councillor, Ministry of Labour; Guiditta Tiberi, Officer, Office of the National Equality Councillor, Ministry of Labour; Catia Zumpano, Senior Researcher on Structural Policies and Rural Development, National Institute on Agrarian Economy; Maria Giuseppina Muratore, Senior Officer, National Institute on Statistics; Maja Bova, Human Rights Expert, Inter-ministerial Committee for Human Rights, Ministry of Foreign Affairs; and Filippo Cinti, First Secretary, Permanent Mission of Italy to the United Nations.

Joining the delegation in New York by video-conference from Rome were several officials from the Department of Equal Opportunities; Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Ministry of Justice; Ministry of Labour; Ministry of Health; Ministry of Education, University and Research; and the National Committee for Equal Opportunities.

Introduction of Report

Mr. BRASIOLI read a message from Mara Carfanga, Minister for Equal Opportunities, which noted that Italy was engaged in a wide range of strategies, programmes and policies aimed at promoting, protecting and advancing the rights of women.

Presenting the report, he said Italy’s action within the United Nations system and other international organizations had been marked in recent years by its focus on a number of specific issues: promoting dialogue among cultures and religions; promoting a moratorium on the death penalty with a view to its universal abolition; the rights of the child; and eradicating violence against women while promoting human rights education. In March 2007, Italy had been among the first Western countries to sign and later to ratify the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, he said, adding that the Italian Government had participated extensively in the preparation of the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence.

Domestically, women were more integrated into society than they had been in the past, and there was no sector in which they could be hindered, he said. However, effective equality had not yet been completely achieved. Too many women were stretched by the need to reconcile work and family-care obligations, and many earned less than men or suffered domestic and sexual violence. Italy was working actively through the Ministry of Equal Opportunities and the National Office against Racial Discrimination to counter such challenges in several key areas. On gender-based violence, the Government had amended and further supplemented the Equal Opportunities Code, thus broadening the principles of non-discrimination and gender equality.

In 2010, Italy had adopted its first National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security, by which it monitored relevant sectors, he said. It had also adopted the National Plan on Violence against Women and Stalking — a rising phenomenon in Italy — as well as establishing an ad hoc government unit and a working group on stalking and sexual violence. With regard to human trafficking, despite the current global financial crisis, Italy had preserved its annual budget of $10 million for the national protection system for trafficking victims. The Government was also currently working to renew that system.

He said his country’s development cooperation was aimed largely at the realization of the third Millennium Development Goal — promoting gender equality and empowering women — through the 2010 Gender Guidelines. Specifically, it supported women in fragile States and conflict situations, advancing the economic and political empowerment of women and focusing on the implementation of international agreements and other relevant documents. Italy supported programmes in Afghanistan, Lebanon, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Somalia, Sudan and other priority countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

Mr. BRASIOLI said that in March 2011 his country had launched the National Independent Human Rights Institution to address the needs of Roma and Sinti women, of both migrant and Italian origin, who remained particularly disadvantaged. The first national awareness-raising campaign with regard to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people had been launched, and a study was being undertaken to explore ways to prevent homophobic bullying in schools, combat discrimination and achieve other relevant goals. Italy was working to strengthen women’s leadership both domestically and internationally, and although the use of quotas had been abolished in 2006, a bill had been submitted in April 2011 to ensure equal access for women to elected and public positions.

Turning to employment, he said the Government had adopted “Italia 2020”, a national action plan for the inclusion of women in the labour market, through which it had allocated €40 million for relevant projects. Concrete programmes had been established under the plan, including child-care services, economic support for those working from home, and tax breaks. The total percentage of women workers had stood at 46.1 per cent in 2010, but despite laws prohibiting discrimination, women still earned 5 per cent less than men on average, he said.

A number of national decrees had been issued to rectify that gap, he said, adding that they addressed such issues as efficiency and transparency in public administration, and equal opportunities in companies and trade unions, among others. He concluded by saying that the Strategic Programme on Gender Medicine had been in place since 2009. It obligated health-care centres to ensure, upon request, the voluntary interruption of pregnancies, as well as medical abortions. Guidelines had been issued to protect the health of women choosing those procedures.

Experts’ Questions and Comments

PATRICIA SCHULZ, expert member from Switzerland, said it was regrettable that the Italian Government had not respected the Committee’s rules, adding: “Your report is over 100 pages.” The responses were too long, she said, noting that such massive documentation did not convey a precise picture, while many of the Committee’s 1997 and 2005 recommendations had not been addressed.

She said she did not understand the scope of protection offered by the Code of Equal Opportunities, and stressed that it was the Government’s responsibility to ensure that international conventions were applied uniformly throughout the country. How were national authorities coordinated? she asked. Regarding Roma and Sinti women, she urged the repeal of the state of emergency, which would signal Italy’s willingness to tackle that issue in a positive way.

AYSE FERIDE ACAR, expert member from Turkey, said the distribution of Italy’s responses to the Committee’s 2005 concluding observations had fallen short of expectations, adding that she had learned from alternative sources that Italian-language versions of the Convention, its Optional Protocol and the general observations were not easily accessible to civil society.

NICOLE AMELINE, Committee Vice-Chairperson and expert member from France, discussed legal and territorial consistency, stressing the importance of a parliamentary procedure. She asked whether there was a way to evaluate statutory law against European directives, and if legislative provisions could be assessed throughout the country. Since criminal justice was organized by territories, who established priorities in that area?

VIOLETA NEUBAUER, expert member from Slovenia, said she could not find an Italian-language version of the sixth report online. Moreover, the Committee’s general recommendations had not been translated and were unavailable to Italians, and the report made no reference to them. According to an Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) report, the Italian legislature had been asked to provide information on its involvement in preparing the report, but that information had not been provided. That demonstrated a lack of interest in women’s human rights and gender equality. She also asked how the reversal of the burden of proof worked and whether it was only available in two distinct areas of discrimination. Finally, she asked what funds had been allocated to the Department of Equal Opportunities for gender-equality purposes and how many of the Department’s staff were experts in that area.

Ms. AMELINE, expert from France, requested information on temporary special measures, specifically the elimination of quotas and how to move towards other ways to enhance equality. Could the regions implement temporary special measures, and what corrective steps were available? she asked. Noting that employment rates remained low and violence high, she wondered whether a resumption of temporary special measures was needed.

Delegation’s Response

Mr. BRASIOLI, briefly discussing the methodology used to draft the report, noted that additional data had been included in response to specific requests by the Committee during its last review. He then asked other members of the delegation to address specific questions raised by the expert members.

Responding to several questions relating to the principle of non-discrimination in Italian law, a member of the delegation said that principle — which was based on the Italian Constitution itself — was considered to be “immediately perceptive”, that is, directly applicable by judges. Other relevant principles emanating from the constitution included equality of work and work conditions, and equal access to public office for men and women. The Equal Opportunities Code, which had recently been amended, now followed European Union standards, she said.

She went on to say that anti-discrimination laws applied to all sectors and levels of society. With regard to trial law the procedure, a case could be brought directly when a man or woman believed that discrimination had occurred. Equality advisers operating in all the country’s regions then took recourse based on the law. Additionally, cases of collective discrimination could be brought to court, and the adviser concerned might request an employer to make specific plans for the removal of the discriminatory behaviour or system. A reconciliatory process would then begin, or another judgement might be rendered. As for the burden of proof, anyone trying to defend his or her rights was charged with presenting the facts, but in cases of discrimination, that burden was reversed, she said.

Another delegation member described the role and structure of the Department of Equal Opportunity, the subject of several questions, saying it was organized under four general directors. They worked, respectively, in the areas of violence and disability, with an approximate budget of €20 million; strategic interventions, structural funds, communications, and national interventions, with an approximate budget of €100 million; international affairs, including human trafficking and female genital mutilation, with a budget of about €20 million for trafficking, €2 million for female genital mutilation, no specific budget for international affairs, and about €5 million annually for daily functioning; and ethnic and multiple types of discrimination, operating on a budget of about €17 million. The Constitution contained a number of discrimination-related articles, he said, adding that four territorial bodies were charged with pursuing anti-discrimination objectives in Italy’s regions.

In response to a question about the challenges posed by that “strongly decentralized structure”, he said the issues under consideration were innately territorial in nature and must be dealt with locally. Nevertheless, the mechanism had a strong central monitoring system, with both technical and political aspects, which was charged with transferring resources to regional offices. Controls were in place to ensure that the regional bodies did not violate the Constitution or the Convention.

On the question of temporary special measures and affirmative action, he said it was true that Italy did not allow for such measures, preferring instead that they be permanent in nature and reflect the concept of “positive action” — long established in the European Union — rather than “affirmative action”. Through positive-action measures, disadvantaged groups such as women were directly identified as requiring a positive advantage, he said. For example, a bill proposing a quota system for women in provincial elections had been introduced, and if approved, it would become national law. It was therefore, by definition, not temporary, he stressed.

Answering a question about Roma and Sinti women, an official from the Department of Equal Opportunities in Rome said special attention was being paid to those communities, particularly in the areas of education and housing. Since 2004, support had been extended to Roma associations with a view to ensuring the adequacy of school practices. Furthermore, Italy had been the first country to carry out a Council of Europe campaign to combat prejudice. Among other efforts, it had held events in several cities to inform decision-makers in various institutions about prejudice.

Just yesterday, a major television channel had aired a three-hour programme to increase awareness about Roma issues, he continued, noting that training courses for journalists had also been organized. Sensitization must be linked to social inclusion programmes, which was why, in 2008, one project in southern Italy had focused on creating social-inclusion tools for public administrators. Another project supported regions in identifying, planning and monitoring local policies. A strategy being devised with a view to including Roma women in labour markets and “social reality” would mark a turning point for them, he said.

Responding to a question about immigration, a delegation member in New York said 50,600 immigrants had arrived in Italy since 1 January, almost half of them women. One project, involving the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Italian Red Cross, among others, offered such newcomers first assistance and legal support upon their arrival in Italy.

Ms. CINQUE said the quota system had been abolished in 2006 after having been used as a temporary measure aimed at solving logistical problems.

A delegation member from the Ministry of Labour said “underground work” had assumed greater importance in relation to health and security in the workplace. Countering illegal employment was indispensable in guaranteeing adequate economic and pay conditions. The Government had adopted measures to prevent and punish such activities, which entailed tax and pay evasion. On the issue of work inspections, she cited data showing that the number of irregularities had fallen between 2009 and 2010. “We are very committed on this and have achieved good results.”

Experts’ Questions and Comments

DUBRAVKA ŠIMONOVIĆ, expert member from Croatia, said every State party was obliged to make the Convention and its Optional Protocol well known, and asked how many times the Convention had been invoked and applied in national courts. As for gender-based stereotypes, the Committee had expressed its concern about the portrayal of women in the media and it was important that measures be taken, including legislation, to combat it. Politicians should also avoid using sexist stereotypes in their public statements, she said, requesting statistics on early marriage among Roma women, the number of women killed by their husbands or ex-husbands, and the number of shelters available for abuse victims.

Ms. ACAR, expert member from Turkey, said stereotypes — and the gender-discriminatory attitudes resulting from them — were a problem and asked whether efforts to stereotyping were coordinated or undertaken in a piecemeal manner. Had school programmes been evaluated? Regarding violence against women, she said that combating such abuse required recognizing that it was related to gender inequality. What sustained and coordinated initiatives were the education system and the media undertaking to that end? she asked, saying she was pleased that Italy planned to ratify the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence.

NAELA MOHAMED GABR, expert member from Egypt, commended Italy’s efforts to combat negative stereotypes, but sought assurances of good coordination in the implementation of all action plans and legislation. Regarding the media, she asked whether the country had a “homogeneous” national action plan for dealing with negative stereotypes. Saying she understood that Italy was facing financial problems, she expressed hope that its budgetary situation would not have a negative impact on support for disabled, elderly women or migrant women, among others. How was Italy dealing with migrant women who faced negative stereotypes and must be able to preserve their cultural identity?

YOKO HAYASHI, expert member from Japan, welcomed the fact that Italy was elaborating its first national action plan against human trafficking and asked when a nationwide focal point for it would be established. Having heard that jurisdiction over trafficking and smuggling was fragmented, she asked whether the new plan would overcome that problem. As for trafficking victims, she said she had received information that article 18 of the anti-trafficking law was being interpreted in a restrictive manner, excluding trafficked women. In particular, Nigerian women trafficked through Libya and forced into prostitution in Italy had been denied assistance under the article, she said, adding that victims awaiting Italian residency authorization should be allowed to participate in job-training programmes. Had funds been allocated for activities such as toll-free phone services to combat trafficking?

ISMAT JAHAN, expert member from Bangladesh, recalled that the Committee had previously asked Italy to revisit its anti-trafficking law and wondered what progress had been made on that front. A 2009 law had made illegal immigration a criminal offence. She urged Italy to review that legislation to ensure that trafficking victims did not fall into the category of irregular or illegal migrants. The issue of prostitution also was deeply tied to immigration, she added.

Delegation’s Responses

Addressing the issue of stereotypes, a delegation member described three important initiatives established with the aim of restoring a positive image of women. In the first, the Government was collaborating with the Institute of Self-Discipline, an umbrella organization working with private marketing and communications companies across Italy, on a programme intended to remove sexist or distorted images of women from advertising. More than 900 cases had been dealt with. The second initiative required the State television station to show “modern” images of women, and the third comprised an agreement with Parliament to propose self-regulation in the commercial television sector. Meanwhile, courses on the role of women in Government institutions had been available since 2005, and agreements had been initiated with universities to establish related programmes, he said, adding that secondary school teachers would be trained for the first time on equality and anti-stereotyping issues.

A delegation member speaking from Rome said that, since 2008, Italy had run a specific educational programme known as “citizenship and constitution” from day care up through high school. It addressed a wide range of social issues, including stereotyping.

Another member of the delegation added that training on human rights was also available. As for human trafficking, understood in Italy as a crime with “special status”, it was handled by a specialized court dealing with organized crime. Trafficking statistics were available, he said, pointing out that 15 such cases had been registered in 2009, with convictions averaging about 15 years’ imprisonment.

Regarding social protection for immigrants, he said the law gave priority protection to foreign citizens who had been victims of serious crimes. Victims were given protection and assistance after the relevant authorities had confirmed the existence of the necessary conditions and considered the severity of each case. The favourable opinion of a public prosecutor was not required in such situations. While victims might fear negative repercussions or that they would not be believed, the law allowed for victims to “choose their own path”, he said, noting that the goal was to protect victims while separating those attempting to use the system to gain entry.

He said Roma victims of police violence were protected when a crime was reported, and received the full support of the law. However, shame, fear of not being believed and general mistrust frequently led to the under-reporting of such crimes. Several initiatives were being carried out to strengthen the training of law-enforcement officers in those areas, including a programme dating back to 2004, which, with the participation of non-governmental organizations, aimed to train officers on family issues. Anther professional programme provided training for police officers on gender violence.

The first draft of a national plan on human trafficking would be completed in November 2011, and protection programmes would be enacted in Italy’s various regions with the assistance of civil society partners, he said. The procedure for victim protection — which would be reflected in that draft document — would entail accompanying victims to training courses and their reintegration into society, all with the aim of fully protecting their dignity. He concluded by saying that a major debate triggered by a 2008 bill proposing the prohibition of street prostitution had yet to be resolved.

Experts’ Questions and Comments

Ms. SCHULZ, expert from Switzerland, asked whether issues such as tax law, health and education, which were covered by a certain code, could be brought to court.

Ms. ŠIMONOVIĆ, expert from Croatia, reiterated her request for statistics on femicide.

Ms. GABR, expert from Egypt, asked whether Italy had a national focal point on trafficking, and if not, whether there were plans to appoint one.

Ms. AMELINE, expert from France, asked about a company that had dismissed several women.

Delegation’s Responses

Regarding stereotypes, a delegation member said more complete data would be available in 2012. On domestic violence, she said a campaign to counter violence against women had been carried out, and a subsequent survey showed a slight improvement on gender roles among couples and in the way in which people organized their time. Balancing work and children remained a problem, though there had been some signs of improvement, she said.

On gender-based violence, she said that a 2006 survey had not been repeated, due to financial constraints, but the Government hoped to resolve the problem. There was a plan in 2011 to renew an agreement with the Department of Equal Opportunities, and a European survey planned for 2013 would feature indicators on gender-based violence in Italy. While the Government lacked trend indicators for domestic violence, she said, surveys had shown an increase in the number of police reports describing that type of abuse, which indicated greater awareness of the problem, rather than an increase in violence.

Mr. BRASIOLI, referring to multiple requests for statistical data, said the National Statistics Department could be of broad help in that regard. It was difficult to collect data on early marriage, which was not a significantly strong phenomenon in Italy, and was therefore not the subject of a simple survey. The United Nations Statistics Division had decided not to include the topic in violence indicators recommended for 2015, he added.

In response to a question about female workers laid off by a company in northern Italy, he said no request had been made to indemnify personal income, and should that start, all stakeholders would need to ensure the proper execution of all procedures and comply with the principle of equal opportunity.

Experts’ Questions and Comments

OLINDA BAREIRO-BOBADILLA, expert member from Paraguay, said women were marginalized from political decision-making, adding that Italy was noteworthy for its gender imbalance in elected office. While pleased to hear about a bill on equality in the political sphere, she asked whether it constituted a temporary measure that would ensure de facto equality, or a real move towards the creation of equal democracy, in which gender difference would be eliminated. What could be done to ensure that all regions had equal political representation and a gender balance in public administration?

SOLEDAD MURILLO DE LA VEGA, expert member from Spain, pointed out that Italy ranked seventy-fourth in a well-known world gender report, and asked how women’s political representation could possibly stand at only 11 per cent. Democracy meant that majorities were in power, whereas women, who comprised 53 per cent of the Italian population, were in the majority. She also asked about the low representation of women in the justice sector, and what approaches would be adopted to defend equality in municipalities.

MERIEM BELMIHOUB-ZERDANI, expert member from Algeria, said that, although article 51 of Italy’s constitution had introduced the principle of gender equality into public and elected posts, paragraph 109 of the report stated that women constituted 18 per cent of the Senate and 21 per cent of members in the lower house of Parliament. She said she would have liked to have seen more progress in that area and emphasized that more women must be elected. She also requested figures on the number of women in the judiciary.

Ms. NEUBAUER, expert from Slovenia, said Roma girls faced difficulties in gaining access to education, as reflected by the 20,000 Roma children under the age of 12 who had not fulfilled their educational obligations. According to a 2010 survey, the root causes of that failing were to be found in their difficult economic conditions and distrust of schools, which were perceived as hostile and thus a threat to their identity. What efforts had been made to ensure that Roma girls were able to continue their education, and further, to support Roma families? she asked.

NIKLAS BRUUN, expert member from Finland, spoke about the low pay and employment rates among women, saying it was hard to find any improvements since 2005. On maternity-related issues, he said that having to resign from work due to pregnancy was a grave violation of the Convention. Italy had no coherent policy in place to reconcile the responsibilities of parenthood with those of employment. Did the Government have any plans to provide affordable child care for low-paid women, and would it introduce better conditions for parental leave? He also asked whether maternity allowances for women in atypical employment would be specially designed for part-time work, and how the Government dealt with sexual harassment in the workplace.

Ms. JAHAN, expert from Bangladesh, focused on vocational training opportunities in the public and private sectors, requesting statistics on the employment status of Roma and migrant women. Concerned about severe segregation in the labour market, she said the situation was particularly acute in the agriculture sector of the south, where migrants were often exploited both mentally and physically. What measures had been taken to prevent discrimination and redress the serious problems faced by migrant women?

PRAMILA PATTEN, expert member from Mauritius, focused on the lack of information on the implementation of laws and policies by the private sector, stressing that under the Convention, Italy was obliged to tackle discrimination perpetrated by businesses. She asked about efforts to regulate the private sector, and the extent to which the ad hoc bill submitted to the Minister for Equal Opportunities in April 2011 was intended to address inequality in employment. When would the bill be enacted? She also asked how women with disabilities were supported in the workplace.

Delegation’s Responses

Mr. BRASIOLI said women had been part of the Italian foreign service since 1960, and their numbers had been increasing. In the last decade, about 40 per cent of job applicants had been women, and in the last three years, the number of female applicants had outnumbered that of their male counterparts. Another member of the delegation said the participation of women in national politics was strong, but stagnant at the local level. A campaign for equal democracy had been launched to redress that situation, with some concrete results. Several bills had been introduced to promote their participation, including the “double preference” proposal, which allowed voters to select two candidates if one was a man and the other a woman. Additionally, a law had been passed to ensure that one third of the seats on the boards of corporations were held by women, he said, adding that penalties were in place should companies not comply.

Non-governmental organizations were represented in the national Equal Opportunities Commission, which had been re-established after a long lapse, he said, adding that regional electoral laws were left to the autonomous regions themselves and the central Government could therefore not act on them. Additionally, post-graduate degrees under “women, politics and institutions” programmes had existed since 2005 to train future leaders.
(NOTA DELLA BLOGGER: La Commissione Pari Opportunità è stata ripristinata 2 GIORNI PRIMA della sessione ONU a NY, il 12 luglio e non ne fanno parte certo le NGO più attive e rappresentative del Paese in materia di discriminazione e violenza di genere, per cui il Governo italiano ha anche presentato in forma MISTIFICATA la realtà al Comitato CEDAW. Si veda qui:
Sottolineo quale mia opinione personale che ritengo non trasparenti i criteri di scelta delle rappresentanti delle associazioni (molte di settore, molte di centrodestra e confessionali; nessuna femminista e nessun centro antiviolenza) e indegno che si sia scelto (sulla base di quali criteri?) quale responsabile del gruppo sulla cultura di genere un soggetto che non ha alcuna preparazione in materia di comunicazione di genere, come si può evincere facilmente dal suo curriculum:

In response to a specific question, a delegation member noted that the Department of Equal Opportunities was the national focal point for human trafficking.

While describing the shortage of women in the judiciary as “old news”, another delegate said they played many highly significant roles in that sector, including in the higher ranks of the penitentiary system. The number of women in the armed forces had increased since the elimination of the quota system, and the rate of increase rose faster each year, she said. With regard to the seniority system of advancement, she said that was only one element among several that were considered when assigning promotions.

On the situation of the Roma, a delegate speaking from Rome said ethnic data could not legally be published. However, international organizations estimated that between 120,000 and 150,000 Roma lived in Italy. Many were there because of a special decree that allowed Roma women fleeing the wars of the 1990s to remain in the country. Today, an estimated 60 per cent of the Roma population were Italian citizens, he said. The regions had programmes in place to serve many vulnerable categories of women, including the Roma, and they were based on the European Commission’s principle of social inclusion — “explicit, but not exclusive, interventions”.

On Roma education, another delegate, speaking from Rome, said the reality of Italian schools was one of local autonomy. At the national and territorial levels, programmes intended to create “better situations of learning” were attempting to deal with a significant increase in immigration, and their finances were allocated on the basis of local indicators. With regard to labour, between $25 and $30 billion — drawn from the National Health Fund — was allocated to “non-self-sufficient” people, including those with disabilities. However, there was a need to change that structure because some areas of Italy were more economically self-sufficient than others.

He said the wide gap between male and female employment rates remained a source of concern, but the situation was improving, despite Italy’s loss of 6.3 per cent of its gross domestic product due to the global recession. Women’s employment was holding up under those conditions thanks to the fluidity of their work market, he said. It was notable that Government income support and maintenance of workers during the global financial crisis had been critical, he said, adding that a new plan, connected to the National Stability Act, envisaged an increase of 12 per cent in women’s employment by 2020. Another programme was intended to provide stable employment for women in southern Italy.

Regarding reconciliation policies and child care, another delegate discussed actions aimed at raising the child-care services target, saying that the results had been “quite good”. The Government had allocated €900 million for that purpose, realizing 25.3 per cent coverage for child-care services.

He said that in its efforts to improve the employment rate, the Government had worked to encourage enterprises towards “flexible projects” and new time-work models, allocating €15 million per year to finance such projects. It had also tried to foster good legislation on parental leave, he said, pointing out that 10 per cent of all parental leaves were now requested by fathers, which was important for Italy’s cultural situation. The Government had allocated funds to help low-income people gain access to child-care services, he added.

Regarding disabilities and law 66 (1999), a Labour Ministry official speaking from Rome cited data indicating that out of 28,600 people, 11,000 women with disabilities had access to the job market. Tele-work had also been beneficial to them, he said.

Experts’ Questions and Comments

VICTORIA POPESCU, Vice-Chairperson and expert member from Romania, asked how the Government reconciled differences in access to basic health-care services among the regions, especially for women in the south and on the islands. Furthermore, Roma, Sinti and migrant women often lacked information on health services, she said. How was mother-to-child transmission of HIV prevented, particularly among those groups?

MARIA HELENA LOPES DE JESUS PIRES, expert member from Timor-Leste, said that despite Italy’s national plan for cancer prevention, 60 per cent of women lacked access to mammograms, and were unaware of the benefits of screenings. Asking about the Government’s response to that situation, she also requested updated information on treatment for drug-addicted women, including those in prison. Noting that 20 per cent of Italy’s budget was dedicated to health, she wondered how much of that was devoted specifically to women’s health.

ZOU XIAOQIAO, expert member from China, asked why Italy had not submitted its “core” documents. Why did the report lack focus on the ability of rural women to obtain credit, or Government efforts to ensure that they had equal access to it? Why did a full-time female worker earn 95 per cent of a man’s salary, whereas the gap between a retired woman’s pension and that of a retired man was 35 per cent? Rural women were a force in the rural economy, she emphasized, requesting data on their social and economic status. Had special measures been adopted to guarantee rural women’s participation in development strategies?

ZOHRA RASEKH, Vice-Chairperson and expert member from Afghanistan, said the report contained no data to indicate the cause of drug and alcohol addiction among women. Suggesting that addiction was often triggered by economic conditions or abuse, among other factors, she asked whether the Government had studied the root causes of addiction or depression among women. She also asked about the campaign to encourage women to stop drinking during pregnancy and other preventive measures taken in that area. Finally, she requested information on the psychosocial support extended to victims of abuse.

Ms. PATTEN, expert from Mauritius, asked whether the Government had devised special legal measures and policies to create the economic conditions that would enable rural women to remain in rural areas. She asked about efforts to improve the collection of data that would give an overview of the situation of rural women. On gender-based violence in rural areas, she said the lack of social services and social control over those areas made women more vulnerable. How did the Government monitor implementation of the law by public officials in rural areas, especially labour law and criminal law?

RUTH HALPERIN-KADDARI, expert member from Israel, noted that divorce proceeding were very long, and a decree could only be concluded three years after the initial hearing, which only aggravated the risk of spousal violence against women. She asked whether Italy had resorted to mandatory mediation in all divorce proceedings, even when there were signs of violence against women. International research was very strong in the opinion that mediation should not be used in such cases, she said. What was meant by shared custody? she asked, adding that parental alienation syndrome was also a “very shaky” concept. She also asked whether there was any recognition of intangible property in the distribution of marital property.

Delegation’s Responses

Ms. RICCI said the State was the guarantor of equal access to health services under the constitution. The Ministry had launched several initiatives to foster immigrant women’s rights, including a report on the state of health of immigrant populations, the creation of targets, and an overview of policies, with a view to identifying assistance programmes that could be offered through regional services.

Another project involving civil society examined health-care operators offering their services in Roma camps, she said. The “security package” did not touch provisions stemming from article 35, she said. Foreigners who were not legal residents could not access health-care structures, but they could receive essential care, and were not obliged to show proof of permanent residence.

Ms. CECCONI said the Government had organized breast cancer screenings, which was the main form of assistance. The Prevention 2010-2012 plan aimed to reduce women’s mortality while other programmes aimed to reduce cancer rates. To eliminate differences in carrying out screenings, especially on the islands and in the south, the 2007-2009 programme of the National Screening Observatory promoted screenings in critical areas, she said, adding that the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention had also financed an extensive screening programme.

Matrimoni forzati: è violenza sulle donne



A Bologna Nura ha tentato il suicidio per sfuggire a un matrimonio forzato e alle botte del fratello, che  voleva sapere con chi parlava al telefono, e a chissà a cos’altro.

Nura è solo una delle tante ragazze che ogni anno nelle nostre città, dopo aver frequentato le scuole con i nostri figli, mangiato la pizza con loro, vengono portate a sposare dalla famiglia con perfetti sconosciuti, in Pakistan soprattutto. O con le buone, perché alcune ragazze sono felici del matrimonio, della festa e della tradizione o con le cattive. Documenti sequestrati, botte, minacce, deportazione in Pakistan. Le strade sono due: chiedere aiuto, rischiando la vita, e se non lo si trova, non si sa a chi chiederlo o non se ne ha il coraggio, il suicidio.

La ricerca di Trama di Terre (1) parla chiaro: molti casi rimangono sommersi perché le ragazze non sanno a chi rivolgersi, perché i servizi accettano questa tradizione e non ci vedono niente di male, soprattutto se la ragazza, davanti ai genitori, abbozza un cenno di entusiasmo (e come fare altrimenti, davanti a loro?).

La Ministra per le Pari opportunità Mara Carfagna è intervenuta dicendo che questa "è una nuova, triste storia di mancata integrazione. Una storia che poteva essere risolta molto prima, rivolgendosi alla polizia e sporgendo denuncia".

La denuncia non è mai un passo facile. Non lo è per una donna italiana picchiata dal marito, lo è molto meno per una ragazza pakistana promessa in sposa, spesso con i documenti sequestrati dalla famiglia e controllata a vista dai maschi di casa.

Fare denuncia per rischiare di essere rinchiuse in un CIE o di essere rispedite a casa, dalla famiglia, e uccise, è un’alternativa che alle orecchie di queste ragazze suona peggio del suicidio.

E’ un problema di violenza di genere, patriarcale, e non di mancata integrazione.

E’ un problema di padri che vogliono decidere sulla vita delle figlie, privarle della libertà di scegliere se e con chi sposarsi e dividere la loro vita.

E allora non si può continuare a far finta di non vedere dov’è il vero problema. Come raggiungere queste ragazze, come aiutarle a scappare a famiglie che le minacciano, le intimoriscono, le maltrattano per tenerle sotto il loro controllo.

Già all’ONU, nel corso della sessione di esame sull’attuazione della CEDAW in Italia , il Governo italiano aveva risposto a una domanda del Comitato dicendo che i matrimoni forzati non sono un fenomeno che riguarda l’Italia ma altre parti del mondo, e che i casi sono rarissimi.

Non è vero. I matrimoni forzati sono frequenti e spesso le famiglie restano impunite.

Nel Rapporto Ombra sulla attuazione della CEDAW in Italia (2)  come Piattaforma italiana “Lavori in corsa . 30 anni di CEDAW” (3) abbiamo evidenziato che In Italia non esiste nessuna rilevazione statistica in grado di determinare la diffusione dei matrimoni forzati. L’assenza di indagini su tutto il territorio nazionale comporta l’impossibilità di prevedere misure specifiche per la prevenzione di questo fenomeno, per la protezione delle vittime e per una efficace repressione dei reati connessi a questa pratica.

Le vittime di matrimoni forzati sono molto più vulnerabili rispetto alle altre vittime di violenza domestica: c’è un alto rischio di suicidio, sequestro e riduzione in schiavitù da parte delle famiglie, rimpatrio forzato nel Paese d’origine.

Gli ostacoli nella protezione delle vittime di matrimoni forzati sono numerosi: mancano strutture sui territori a cui chiedere aiuto, numeri amici, case rifugio ad alta sicurezza, ostacoli burocratici e amministrativi legati alla legge sull’immigrazione.

Le vittime di matrimoni forzati infatti non possono godere di un percorso di reinserimento speciale come quello delle vittime di tratta.

E allora, Ministra, è facile parlare di scarsa integrazione.

Ma chi conosce il problema e lavora con queste donne, le professoresse a cui queste ragazze a scuola chiedono aiuto, sanno che parliamo di violenza domestica verso vittime particolarmente vulnerabili.

Questo richiede al più presto un piano di azione nazionale, formazione degli insegnanti e dei servizi sociali, la creazione di case rifugio per vittime ad alto rischio di protezione, indagini statistiche.

Esistono delle Raccomandazioni e Risoluzioni europee che ce lo impongono.

Non facciamo finta di ignorare che servono soldi per la protezione delle vittime di violenza: di quelle accolte dai centri antiviolenza e di quelle che per essere accolte dai centri antiviolenza necessitano una protezione speciale, come le vittime di matrimoni forzati.

C’è Nura, ma per fortuna ci sono sempre più ragazze che chiedono aiuto, e lo trovano. Io ne conosco parecchie di ragazze pakistane che hanno deciso di dire di no, e hanno trovato donne disposte ad aiutarle nella loro scelta. Ma gli ostacoli da affrontare sono numerosi e i fondi per la protezione ed il reinserimento di queste ragazze scarseggiano.

Che il Governo faccia la sua parte, finanziando la creazione di case rifugio e adottando un Piano Nazionale di contrasto ai matrimoni forzati, riconoscendo che si tratta di violenza di genere e come tale va affrontata.

Barbara Spinelli, Giuristi Democratici, autrice di “Femminicidio”, redattrice insieme e per la Piattaforma “30 anni di CEDAW-Lavori in corsa” del Rapporto Ombra sullo stato di attuazione della CEDAW in Italia (2005-2010)

sabato 16 luglio 2011


Oggi il Comitato CEDAW delle Nazioni Unite, composto da 23 membri provenienti da tutto il mondo, ha valutato la relazione periodica presentata dal Governo italiano sulle misure adottate negli ultimi 4 anni per garantire i diritti delle donne. La società civile era presente alla discussione. Per la Piattaforma “Lavori in corsa – 30 anni di CEDAW” erano presenti Barbara Spinelli (Giuristi Democratici) e Claudia Signoretti e Simona Lanzoni (Fondazione Pangea).

Il Governo ha presentato le politiche portate avanti in questi quattro anni. Era presente una delegazione in sala e una in videoconferenza: circa quaranta persone in totale rispetto alle due persone del 2005, quando non fu presentato nessun rapporto ombra e la società civile non era presente al dialogo costruttivo tra Comitato CEDAW e Governo.

È la prima volta infatti che la società civile italiana presenta un rapporto ombra e partecipa alla sessione di valutazione del Comitato CEDAW. Il rapporto ha raccolto l’adesione di oltre 120 organizzazioni della società civile.

I membri del Comitato CEDAW oggi hanno posto numerosissime domande, che rispecchiavano la maggior parte dei temi critici sollevati dalla Piattaforma nel Rapporto Ombra.

Le domande hanno toccato tutti i diritti riconosciuti dalla Convenzione.

Il primo gruppo di domande riguardava il quadro legislativo italiano e i meccanismi istituzionali che dovrebbero l’attuazione dei principi della CEDAW e migliorare le condizioni di tutte e tutti. Il Comitato CEDAW ha sottolineato che alla luce della grave persistenza degli stereotipi che riguardano il ruolo della donna in Italia è indispensabile che il Governo garantisca la conoscenza della Convenzione, traducendola e diffondendola.

Numerosissime e interessate le domande sulle strategie che il Governo vorrà adottare in materia di eliminazione degli stereotipi, di partecipazione di tutte le donne, italiane, migranti, di seconda generazione, disabili, rom, alla vita pubblica, sociale, politica, economica e culturale.

“In politica si trasmettono stereotipi sul ruolo della donna come oggetto sessuale: cosa farà il Governo per sradicare questi stereotipi?”.

E ancora molte le domande su salute, tratta, prostituzione, su come è stata affrontata la crisi, sulle molestie sessuali sul luogo di lavoro, sulla violenza domestica.

Durante la sessione il Comitato CEDAW ha più volte espresso la sua preoccupazione per il fatto che dal 2005 ad oggi non si sono registrati sostanziali miglioramenti per le donne in Italia.

Il Comitato CEDAW, sulla base del dialogo avuto il 13 luglio con le rappresentanti della Piattaforma “Lavori in corsa - 30 anni CEDAW” e sulla base del dialogo avuto oggi con il Governo, lavorerà per formulare entro la fine del mese le Raccomandazioni conclusive, che il Governo italiano è tenuto ad attuare per rispettare l’impegno internazionale assunto con la ratifica della Convenzione per l’eliminazione di ogni forma di discriminazione nei confronti delle donne.

venerdì 15 luglio 2011

Il “rapporto ombra” sui diritti delle italiane arriva alla sede Onu di New York

Fonte: Il fatto quotidiano
Per la prima volta oltre 100 associazioni hanno compilato un dossier che mette in discussione i dati presentati dal governo sulla condizione femminile nel nostro Paese: "Negli anni 2005-2009 non si sono registrati sostanziali miglioramenti"

Emancipazione femminile e lotta contro la discriminazione delle donne. A che punto siamo in Italia? Sull’argomento, le opinioni sono almeno due. Da una parte quella del governo che sostiene come la situazione sia in sostanziale miglioramento, dall’altra quella di un cartello di associazioni che dice il contrario.

L’occasione per mettere a confronto i due punti di vista sarà domani a New York, presso la sede delle Nazioni Unite, quando prima verrà presentato il dossier del governo sui diritti delle donne e poi, per la prima volta, il rapporto ombra curato dalle 100 associazioni della piattaforma Lavori in Corsa – 30 anni CEDAW , rappresentate per l’occasione da Fondazione Pangea e da Giuristi Democratici.

La discussione si terrà davanti ai membri del Comitato per l’applicazione della Cedaw, la Convenzione per l’eliminazione di ogni forma di discriminazione contro le donne che quest’anno compie 30 anni. I 186 paesi che l’hanno sottoscritta devono presentare ogni quattro anni una relazione sui risultati raggiunti. Obiettivo della convenzione è l’eliminazione delle discriminazioni tra uomo e donna a livello legislativo, politico, amministrativo, culturale, economico e sociale.

“Per la prima volta oltre 100 organizzazioni della società civile italiana presentano un minuzioso rapporto ombra di 154 pagine per criticare la relazione del nostro Governo”, spiega Simona Lanzoni, responsabile dei progetti per la Fondazione Pangea. Il Comitato poi, sulla base delle informazioni ricevute, formulerà le proprie osservazioni conclusive, che contengono una serie di raccomandazioni per orientare il lavoro dei governi nei cinque anni successivi. “Per la formulazione del nostro rapporto ombra abbiamo letto quanto redatto da Palazzo Chigi. Nonostante si trattasse di un rapporto ufficiale, il documento è stato pubblicato solo in inglese e i suggerimenti del comitato nel 2005 sono online sul sito delle Pari opportunità da fine 2010”, prosegue Lanzoni. Segnali che sono indice di scarsa trasparenza verso i cittadini e di poca sensibilità nella diffusione della Convenzione.

A seguito del rapporto del governo italiano presentato nel 2005, il Comitato aveva espresso preoccupazione sul ruolo della donna in Italia. Tuttavia, come leggiamo nel rapporto ombra, “negli anni 2005-2009 in Italia non si sono registrati sostanziali miglioramenti nella condizione femminile”. Infatti “è stato rilevato il disinteresse di gran parte del mondo istituzionale per il numero sempre crescente di violenze domestiche terminate in femminicidi, cui si è aggiunta la strumentalizzazione politica degli stupri commessi da stranieri in luoghi pubblici (un’esigua percentuale rispetto a quelli commessi tra le mura domestiche) al fine di approvare leggi in materia di immigrazione ulteriormente repressive”.

Inoltre le donne, nel 2007 hanno manifestato per chiedere investimenti e piani di intervento strutturali contro la violenza, e “per reclamare con forza la promozione di una cultura di genere paritaria capace di sradicare le vecchie concezioni patriarcali e gli stereotipi discriminanti alla base di queste violenze e, più in generale, della sottorappresentazione della donna nei luoghi di potere della vita sociale, culturale, economica e politica”.

Anche sull’accesso delle donne al lavoro non si è registrato alcun miglioramento, anche se negli ultimi anni “va riconosciuta al Ministero delle Pari Opportunità una crescente attenzione in materia di violenza di genere, che si è concretizzata nell’adozione di alcune riforme legislative, fortemente volute dai centri antiviolenza, che da anni giacevano sepolte in Parlamento senza trovare spazio di discussione”. Le punte di eccellenza sono state l’accelerazione dell’approvazione della legge sullo stalking e l’adozione del Piano nazionale antiviolenza, ma aldilà di queste necessarie riforme legislative, rimane aperta “la questione della presenza femminile nei luoghi di rappresentanza”.

Il maggiore ostacolo allo sviluppo della donna, come nota anche il Rapporto Periodico del governo, è il “radicamento degli stereotipi sessisti” fomentato dalla cultura dei mass media e al regresso dell’immagine della donna nel dibattito politico “date le continue allusioni sessuali”. Nonostante questo, però, “i comportamenti maschilisti e scorretti nei confronti delle donne sono stati ampiamente tollerati anche in sede pubblica e hanno rafforzato un sentimento di svalutazione delle donne verso se stesse e comportamenti rinunciatari”. “Per quanto riguarda il lavoro, – osserva Lanzoni- la donna deve affrontare due problemi: spesso è costretta a firmare dimissioni in bianco all’assunzione. Così, se rimane incinta, viene licenziata. Inoltre – aggiunge-, a causa della diminuzione dei fondi pubblici del sistema sociale, deve rimanere a casa per occuparsi dell’assistenza ai figli, agli anziani e ai malati. A peggiorare la situazione anche l’eliminazione del tempo pieno per la riforma Gelmini”, nota. Cruciale il nodo della salute riproduttiva, dove si sta riducendo all’osso la scelta dell’interruzione di gravidanza. In Basilicata, ad esempio, i medici obiettori sono il 92% e lo Stato non garantisce in questo modo la possibilità di scegliere.

“Purtroppo molti provvedimenti del governo per la parità e la tutela della donna non sono stati implementati perché mancano i fondi. Dietro l’etichetta, insomma, c’è ben poco”. Vedremo se a New York anche il Comitato CEDAW condividerà le stesse criticità.

New York : punto sulla Convenzione contro le discriminazioni verso le donne

Fonte: Osservatorio sulla legalità

Tre rapporti "ombra" sulle discriminazioni e le violenze riguardanti le donne in Italia sono stati presentati alla 49esima sessione informale della CEDAW (Convenzione per l'Eliminazione di ogni forma di Discriminazione contro le Donne).

All'incontro ufficiale di oggi a New York nella sede delle Nazioni Unite, il Comitato per l’applicazione della CEDAW esaminerà il VI Rapporto periodico sull'implementazione della Convenzione che il Governo italiano ha presentato nel dicembre 2009. Il Comitato, formato da 23 esperti sulla questione di genere di tutto il mondo (22 donne e un uomo), è presieduto da Silvia Pimentel, del Brasile. Il lavoro del Comitato consiste nell’esaminare il contesto Paese, lo sviluppo e l’attuazione dei diritti delle donne in Italia, Costa Rica, Zambia, Etiopia, Repubblica di Corea, Nepal, Djibouti e Singapore.

La violenza di genere, la partecipazione delle donne alla vita politica, le leggi discriminatorie delle donne nel contesto del matrimonio e l’eliminazione degli stereotipi di genere, sono solo alcune delle tematiche che sono state affrontate nella sessione informale che ha preceduto quella ufficiale, e dutante la quale i presentatori dei tre rapporti ombra hanno fatto delle dichiarazioni.

Il rapporto ombra della piattaforma “30 anni CEDAW – Lavori in corsa” rappresentata a New York da Claudia Signoretti e Simona Lanzoni (Fondazione Pangea) e Barbara Spinelli (Giuristi Democratici) è un lavoro relativo a tutti gli articoli della Convenzione redatto in collaborazione con 8 organizzazioni e abbiamo raccolto l’adesione di oltre 100 diverse realtà della società civile nonché molte adesioni individuali. Il rapporto sulla tossicodipendenza e la sieropositività e il sistema di giustizia penale è frutto del lavoro dell'Associazione Internazionale per la riduzione del danno, di Giuristi Democratici e delle Associazioni Itaca e Antigone, mentre il rapporto sulle donne Rom è presentato dall'European Roma Rights Centre.

Il discorso tenuto dalla piattaforma “30 anni CEDAW – Lavori in corsa” si è focalizzato su implementazione della CEDAW e promozione dei diritti delle donne, lavoro e welfare, partecipazione politica delle donne, diritti sessuali e riproduttivi, protezione delle donne dalla violenza maschile, tratta e prostituzione. È stato espresso grande interesse per le attività svolte dalla Piattaforma per l’attuazione della Convenzione in Italia e per le questioni sollevate nel rapporto e nell’oral statement.

Al termine della giornata del 14 luglio il Comitato CEDAW formulerà le Osservazioni Conclusive per ogni Paese, con incluse le raccomandazioni che ogni Stato sarà obbligato a tenere in considerazione per l’attuazione della CEDAW e lo sviluppo delle politiche di pari opportunità, ai sensi della Convenzione e del suo Protocollo Opzionale.

martedì 12 luglio 2011

Presentato il Rapporto Ombra sulla attuazione della CEDAW a New York

Oggi, 11 Luglio 2011 presso le Nazioni Unite, a New York, si è aperta la 49esima sessione CEDAW.

Il Comitato di 23 esperti, 22 donne ed un uomo, è presieduto da Silvia Pimentel del Brasile.

In questa sessione il Comitato esaminerà l'attuazione della Convenzione, lo sviluppo e l’attuazione dei diritti delle donne in Costa Rica, Zambia, Italia Etiopia, Republica di Corea, Nepal, Djibouti e Singapore.

Qui il discorso di apertura della Presidente Silvia Pimentel.
Qui le dichiarazioni di apertura dell'Assistente del Segretario Generale, Ivan Simonovic.

Sono tanti i temi trattati, tra questi la violenza di genere, la partecipazione politica, leggi che discriminano la donna nel matrimonio, l’eliminazione degli stereotipi di genere.
Al termine della sessione, dopo aver consultato le rappresentanti che sono qui a NY delle diverse società civili, e avviato un dialogo costruttivo con i governi degli Stati esaminati, il Comitato CEDAW formulerà le Osservazioni Conclusive per ogni Stato, con incluse le raccomandazioni che lo Stato è obbligato a tenere in considerazione per l’attuazione della Convenzione e lo sviluppo delle politiche di pari opportunità, ai sensi della Convenzione e del suo Protocollo Opzionale.

L’11 luglio è stato il giorno dedicato all’intervento della società civile: Costa Rica, Italia, Zambia e Etiopia hanno presentato i loro oral statement (dichiarazioni orali) relative al rapporto ombra presentato al Comitato CEDAW in cui si sottolineano i punti critici principali.

Per l’Italia sono stati presentait tre rapporti ombra.

Il rapporto della piattaforma “30 anni CEDAW – Lavori in corsa” rappresentata a New York da Claudia Signoretti e Simona Lanzoni (Fondazione Pangea) e Barbara Spinelli (Giuristi Democratici) analizza la situazione dei diritti delle donne in Italia riconosciuti da tutti gli articoli della Convenzione.

Inoltre è stato presentato il rapporto sulla tossicodipendenza e la sieropositività delle donne e il sistema di giustizia penale (Associazione Internazionale per la riduzione del danno, Giuristi Democratici, Associazione Itaca e Antigone) e il rapporto sulle donne Rom (European Roma Rights Centre).

Il discorso tenuto dalla piattaforma “30 anni CEDAW – Lavori in corsa” si è focalizzato su:

· l’implementazione della CEDAW e la promozione dei diritti delle donne;

· lavoro e welfare,

· partecipazione politica delle donne,

· diritti sessuali e riproduttivi,

· protezione delle donne dalla violenza maschile,

· tratta e prostituzione.

È la prima volta da quando nel 1985  l'Italia ha ratificato la Convenzione che la società civile e in particolare l’associazionismo femminile italiano partecipa alla sessione CEDAW presentando il proprio Rapporto Ombra al Comitato.

Al Rapporto Ombra della Piattaforma CEDAW hanno aderito oltre un centinaio di organizzazioni e molte persone, di tutti i sessi e orientamenti sessuali.
È stato espresso grande interesse per le attività svolte dalla Piattaforma per l’attuazione della Convenzione in Italia e per le questioni sollevate nel Rapporto e nell’Oral statement (che a breve verrà pubblicato in italiano).

L’emozione è grande e il lavoro da fare ancora molto…

sabato 9 luglio 2011

Video intervista alle attiviste impegnate nella redazione del Rapporto Ombra sulla attuazione della CEDAW in Italia,

Video intevista a Barbara Spinelli (Giuristi Democratici) e Claudia Signoretti (Pangea), della Piattaforma "30 anni di CEDAW - Lavori in corsa",  sul processo di monitoraggio della attuazione della CEDAW in Italia e sul Rapporto Ombra.

Roma, 30 maggio 2011

mercoledì 6 luglio 2011

Scheda di sintesi: il rapporto ombra della Piattaforma "Lavori in corsa" sulla implementazione della CEDAW in Italia

elaborata dall'avv. Barbara Spinelli

Nel Rapporto Ombra sono evidenziate le principali criticità relative alla diffusione e alla applicazione della Convenzione in Italia, al funzionamento del sistema delle pari opportunità, alla rappresentazione delle donne, alla rappresentanza femminile nella vita pubblica e politica, nazionale ed internazionale, alla cittadinanza, alla scuola, al lavoro, alla previdenza sociale, alla salute, allo sfruttamento lavorativo e sessuale delle donne, alla violenza di genere in tutte le sue forme, dai matrimoni forzati al femminicidio.

Il Rapporto pone particolare attenzione alle discriminazioni subite dalle donne disabili, dalle donne private della libertà personale, dalle donne migranti, Rom e Sinte.
Viene altresì evidenziata la doppia discriminazione subita dalle lesbiche e transessuali, sia in ragione del loro orientamento sessuale sia in quanto di sesso femminile.

Il Rapporto Ombra copre il periodo dal 2005 ad oggi.

Il giudizio complessivo nei confronti dell’attività dei Governi che si sono succeduti in questi anni è critico: poco è stato fatto a livello strutturale per combattere gli stereotipi sessisti e i pregiudizi di genere, che “minano alla base la condizione sociale delle donne, costituiscono un impedimento significativo alla attuazione della Convenzione, e sono all’origine della posizione di svantaggio occupata dalle donne in vari settori, compreso il mercato del lavoro e la vita politica e pubblica” (Raccomandazione n. 25/2005 del Comitato CEDAW all’Italia).

La dipendenza economica e politica del Ministero delle Opportunità dal Presidente del Consiglio ha impedito che in questi anni potessero essere adottate riforme in un’ottica di genere, consentendo sempre il prevalere di altri interessi sulla garanzia di un effettivo godimento dei diritti, in concreto, per le donne.

Ad esempio nel 2007 il disegno di legge “organico” Pollastrini contro la violenza di genere diventò un disegno di legge a tutela della famiglia, rinominato Bindi-Mastella-Pollastrini, per non essere poi mai approvato.

E oggi pure prevalgono gli interessi corporativi nella legge che introduce le quote nei C.d.A, e gli interessi dei partiti nella mancata approvazione delle leggi sulle quote rosa in politica.

Il maschilismo diffuso e l’assenza di una definizione di discriminazione di genere e basata  sull’orientamento sessuale, impedisce inoltre l’estensione a donne e LGBTQI della tutela penale  accordata dalla legge Mancino a tutti gli altri soggetti discriminati per motivi razziali, etnici, nazionali o religiosi.

Questo ostracismo politico all’adozione di misure speciali temporanee per promuovere l’uguaglianza sostanziale delle donne e questa avversione al riconoscimento dei diritti basati sul genere e sull’orientamento sessuale, costituiscono gravi violazioni della Convenzione.

Oltre a queste, le principali violazioni dei diritti delle donne sono state riscontrate in materia di rappresentanza politica e pubblica delle donne, per la mancata attuazione dell’art. 51 Cost., che rende necessario, per garantire la presenza delle donne negli organismi politici locali, il ricorso giurisdizionale; nella salute, per il difficile accesso ai dispositivi anticoncezionali; nel lavoro, per l’inadeguatezza delle politiche governative a favorire la conciliazione vita lavoro e per la totale assenza di politiche mirate a garantire l’accesso al lavoro alle donne disabili e detenute; nei rapporti familiari, perché la violenza domestica non viene tenuta in considerazione nella determinazione dell’affido dei figli; nella protezione delle vittime di violenza di genere, per l’ancora insufficiente preparazione professionale specifica degli operatori e per il basso numero di case-rifugio presenti sul territorio e l’inadeguatezza dei fondi stanziati perché possano funzionare; nell’ancora insufficiente attenzione prestata alle situazioni di sfruttamento lavorativo delle donne migranti e al contrasto del fenomeno sommerso ma drammatico dei matrimoni forzati.

Fondazione Pangea Onlus e Giuristi Democratici a New York per difendere i diritti delle donne in Italia e nel mondo

Comunicato Stampa

Il prossimo 14 luglio, a New York, presso le Nazioni Unite, il Comitato per l’applicazione della CEDAW (Convenzione per l'Eliminazione di ogni forma di Discriminazione contro le Donne) esaminerà il VI Rapporto periodico sull'implementazione della Convenzione che il Governo italiano ha presentato nel dicembre 2009. Fondazione Pangea Onlus e Giuristi Democratici saranno presenti come rappresentanti della società civile per la piattaforma Lavori in Corsa – 30 anni CEDAW, con un rapporto Ombra, elaborato da diverse organizzazioni per evidenziare all’ONU e all’opinione pubblica l’inadeguatezza, alla luce dei canoni di giudizio stabiliti dalla Convenzione, delle politiche, delle misure e dei finanziamenti volti a garantire le pari opportunità in Italia evidenziando le discriminazioni e gli stereotipi di genere ancora esistenti e lesivi della dignità e dei diritti delle donne.

La CEDAW è considerata il trattato internazionale più completo sui diritti delle donne. La Convenzione, ad oggi è stata adottata da 186 Stati. L'Italia l’ha ratificata nel 1985. E’ composta da un preambolo e 30 articoli che identificano aree specifiche di discriminazione e indicano gli strumenti per eliminarli.

Chiede di rimuovere le discriminazioni e gli ostacoli che limitano la partecipazione delle donne alla vita pubblica, lavorativa, ai processi decisionali politici, familiari, personali; di contrastare la violenza di genere, di impegnarsi per modificare la diffusa accettazione degli stereotipi associati ai ruoli tradizionali di uomini e donne nella famiglia e nella società, incoraggiando un'immagine paritaria tra uomini e donne.

Ogni quattro anni gli Stati che hanno ratificato la CEDAW devono presentare al Comitato per l'eliminazione delle discriminazioni sulle donne rapporti di valutazione dei progressi fatti nell'implementazione della Convenzione, illustrando le misure intraprese a livello legislativo, politico, amministrativo, culturale, economico e sociale. Contemporaneamente la società civile può formulare un rapporto ombra in cui analizza il rapporto governativo, le violazioni più significative dei diritti sanciti dalla CEDAW e di quelle aree dove l’intervento istituzionale è stato assente o inadeguato con la Convenzione così come formula alcune raccomandazioni per migliorare le politiche e le pratiche per l'adempimento degli obblighi previsti dalla CEDAW. Sulla base delle informazioni ricevute, il Comitato formula le proprie osservazioni conclusive, che contengono una serie di raccomandazioni ai Governi per migliorarne l’applicazione. Gli Stati sono tenuti a considerare le osservazioni che ricevono per orientare il loro lavoro nei cinque anni successivi.

E’ la prima volta che una rappresentanza della società civile femminile italiana elabora e presenta il rapporto ombra al Comitato CEDAW. Pertanto la presenza della società civile sarà di cruciale importanza per suggerire al Comitato raccomandazioni che migliorino la condizione della donna in Italia. Alcuni dei temi scottanti sui quali Fondazione Pangea, Giuristi Democratici e la piattaforma Lavori in Corsa – 30 anni CEDAW si è focalizzata sono il lavoro femminile, la conciliazione tra lavoro e famiglia, la povertà femminile sempre più in aumento, l’accesso alla sanità e alla salute riproduttiva universale e laica, la violenza maschile sulle donne, la rappresentanza politica.

La scarsa conoscenza di strumenti come la CEDAW da parte dell’opinione pubblica implica che i Governi sentano una pressione limitata per porre in essere le raccomandazioni della CEDAW e non rispettino gli impegni previsti dalla Convenzione. L’Italia negli ultimi cinque anni ne è l’esempio.

La CEDAW è uno strumento fondamentale per l'avanzamento della condizione delle donne in Italia e nel mondo: la sua conoscenza e implementazione non possono aspettare!

Hanno redatto il rapporto Ombra: Fondazione Pangea ONLUS, Giuristi Democratici, ActionAid, ARCS-ARCI Cultura e Sviluppo, IMED- Istituto per il Mediterraneo, Differenza Donna, Be Free, Fratelli dell’Uomo.

Roma, 5 luglio 2011